Business Licensing in Moscow
These information pages can help you get started in learning about some of the laws and registration requirements that may apply to your experiences on Airbnb. These pages include summaries of some of the rules that may apply to different sorts of activities, and contain links to government resources that you may find helpful.
Please understand that these information pages are not comprehensive, and are not legal advice. If you are unsure about how local laws or this information may apply to you or your Experience, we encourage you to check with official sources or seek legal advice.
Please note that we don’t update this information in real time, so you should confirm that the laws or procedures have not changed recently.*
Do business registration obligations apply? How can I register my business?
When providing an Experience commercially as an individual you will need to become registered as an individual entrepreneur in the Unified State Register of Private Entrepreneurs.
Under Russian laws an activity is deemed to be commercial (i.e. it requires registration) if carried out at the provider's own risk and is aimed at gaining regular profit from selling goods, providing services, etc.
Example where your Experience will likely be deemed to be a business activity:
- If you offer an Experience on a regular basis (e.g. weekly, bi-weekly or monthly), with the clear intention to make a profit.
Example where your Experience might not be deemed to be a business activity:
- If you offer an Experience on an irregular and/or rare basis, and the amount of money earned is limited and more or less covers your costs.
State registration of an individual entrepreneur as a business is done at a tax inspectorate (local office of the Federal Tax Service) and generally requires:
- filling in form R21001;
- filing additional registration docs (these may include identity documents, documents proving legal residence, criminal records, confirmation of being up to date with taxes); and
- Payment of a registration fee (in May 2017: RUB 800).
Further information is available from the Russian Federal Tax Service here.
The business of providing experiences can also be run through a legal entity (e.g. a limited company), for which different registrations and fees apply.
What happens if I am carrying out a business but do not register my business?
You should be aware of potential administrative and criminal offences for failure to comply with business registration rules, which may include financial penalties.
Is there anything else I should be thinking about?
Yes - depending on the Experience you will be providing, you may need to register, obtain licenses, or follow specific rules that apply to that activity.
Special business licences are governed by Federal Law No.99-FZ of 4 May 2011 on Licensing of Certain Types of Activities. Some examples of relevant activities requiring a licence include transportation (also see our Responsible Hosting site about Transportation), education services, and restoration of historic objects. Production and sale of alcoholic drinks is also a licensable activity under Federal Law No. 171-FZ dated 22 November 1995 on State Regulation of Production and Realization of Alcohol-Containing Products and Limitation of Alcohol Consumption (also see our Responsible Hosting site about Experiences Including Alcohol). These licences may take some time to obtain so you should investigate in advance of offering your experiences.
Our information pages on specific activities cover some of these areas, but are not intended to be comprehensive. You should always check the position with your local authority or seek advice from a legal professional.
Apart from getting the formalities in place for running your business, you will need to comply with tax and accounting laws (there may be a simplified tax system available for some small businesses) and all other applicable Federal and local laws and regulations such as the Federal Tourism Law (Federal Law No. 132-FZ dated 24 November 1996 ‘on Tourist Activities in the Russian Federation’) and consumer laws (for instance, Law No. 2300-1 dated 07 February 1992 ‘on Protection of Consumer Rights’ being key piece of legislation in the consumer protection area).
You should also make sure you have the right insurance cover in place to cover all the activities you will be providing.
*Airbnb is not responsible for the reliability or correctness of the information contained in any links to third party sites (including any links to legislation and regulations).
Other information you'd like to see? Share your feedback at firstname.lastname@example.org.